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In chronic cannabis users, it is particularly difficult to determine whether a positive result for cannabis represents a new episode of drug use or continued excretion of residual drug . Algorithmic models have been devised to determine whether THC levels represent new use or the carry-over from previous use . However, these models are not very accurate in discriminating new use and carry-over in chronic users . Cannabinoids can be detected in saliva, blood, urine, hair and nail using various analytical techniques, including immunoassays (EMIT®, Elisa, fluorescence polarization, radioimmunoassay) .
- The topicals are recommended for spot treatments for immediate relief at the source whether that be joint pain, muscle soreness, muscle tightness.
- After the enzymes are broken down, they then synthesize and are sent throughout the whole body to various biologic and cognitive processes.
- Each of the forms of CBD can be helpful in recovery and can benefit the body in the long run.
- Understanding what CBD is and how it can help with the recovery process is the first step to know if it is the right supplement for your recovery.
- Since the endocannabinoid system aids many different areas of the body, the use of CBD can benefit many different issues including muscle soreness, joint issues, sleep, and more.
Others have determined approximately 36 L/hour for naïve cannabis users and 60 L/hour for regular cannabis users12. Heavy cannabis(30-50mg oral and 8-30 mg smoked) use can specifically cause a mania-like psychosis and more generally act as a precipitant for manic relapse in bipolar patients .
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The second hypothesis suggests that ▵9_THC interacts with specific cannabinoid receptors . Further, cannabinoids inhibit macromolecular metabolism in a dose-dependent manner and have a wide range of effects on enzyme systems, hormone secretion and neurotransmitters (18, 21–23). The evidence of numerous and diffuse in vivo effects support the non-specific interaction hypothesis for THC. The cannabis plant contains more than 421 chemicals of which 61 are cannabinoids . These compounds altogether contribute to the unique pharmacological and toxicological properties of cannabis.
In an interesting study from Pakistan, major metabolites of cannabis were found in the milk of cows which had grazed upon naturally growing cannabis vegetation . Children fed on such milk showed metabolites of cannabis in the urine, suggesting passive consumption through milk . Lower concentrations of THCA can be associated with occasional use, carry over period or probable cannabis exposure . Immunoassay is adopted as a preliminary method in the drug testing program . For this reason, any positive result using immunoassay must be confirmed by chromatographic techniques .Cannabis has a long half-life in humans .
Physiological effects include rapid changes in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure, conjunctival suffusion, dry mouth and throat, increased appetite, vasodilatation and decreased respiratory rate . Cannabis also affects the immune and endocrine system; and its abuse is associated with lung damage and EEG alterations .
▵9-THC is metabolized in the liver by microsomal hydroxylation and oxidation catalyzed by enzymes of cytochrome P450 complex. The average plasma clearance rates have been reported to be 11.8± 3 L/hour for women and 14.9 ±3.7 L/hour for men .
It is possible that cannabis exposure is a contributing factor that interacts with other known and unknown factors culminating in psychiatric illness . One such, which describes psychosis occurring exclusively with cannabis use has limited evidence. There is strong evidence that cannabis use may precipitate schizophrenia or exacerbate its symptoms. There is also reasonable evidence that cannabis use exacerbates the symptoms of psychosis . Memory and mood changes such as panic and paranoid reactions have also been reported.
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism of in vivo action of ▵9_THC. According to the first, ▵9_THC which is secreted as a glucuronide acts via non-specific interactions with cellular and organelle membranes in the brain supporting a membrane perturbation mechanism .
Miller NS, Gold MS. The diagnosis of marijuana dependence. Mendelson JH, Mello NK. Effects of marijuana on neuroendocrine hormones in human males and females. Burstein S, Hunter SA, Sedor C, Shulman S. Prostaglandins and cannabis–IX. Stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis in human lung fibroblasts by CBD oil delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol. Chaperon F, Thiebot MH. Behavioral effects of cannabinoid agents in animals.